ON THE HISTORICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND THESE METHODS’ CONTRIBUTION TO LANGUAGE LEARNING
Troughout the late dates of history to our new modern age there have been a great many methods and approaches concerning language teaching in EFL an ESL in addition to these methods an approaches also many linguists all over the word have done various researches to find more effective techniques than the others. For instance in 1880 Charles Berlitz brought out a language teaching method which is called as Direct Method’ : According to this method second language learning is similar to the first language learning in this light there should be lots of oral interaction; spontaneous use of the language no translation and little if any analysis of grammatical rules an syntactic structures. This method enjoyed great popularity at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth but it was difficult to use, mainly because of the constraints of budget, time and classroom size. Because people’s aims are different to learn a language in the next years some other methods came out. For example the out break of world war II heightened the need for Americans to became orally proficient in the language of their allies and enemies alike so a new method, “Army Method” which came to be know in the 1950s as Audiolingual Method appeared. There are some notable qualifications of this method such as dependence on mimicary and memorization of set phrases, no grammatical explanation, learning vocabulary in context and use of tapes and visual aids. Beginning in the mid-1960 s there has been a variety of theoretical challenges to the audio-lingual method. Linguist Noam Chomsky challenged the behaviorist model of languge learning, He proposed a theory called “Transformations” Generative Grammar, according to which learners don’t acquire an endless list of rules but sentence changed from an affirmative to a negative sentence, by adding not and the auxiliary verb to .i.e. “I go to Newyork every week” would be changed to “ I don’t go to Newyork every week with a fairly limited number of this transformations, according to Chamsky, languge users can form an unlimited number of sentences. After waning of this method (1989-97) David “Nunan brought out a collection of methods which were called as The Designer Methods”. One of these methods is “ suqqestopedia” This method indicates that music plays a pivotal role in languge learning. Lozanov and his followers tried to present vocabulary, reading, role-play and drama with classical music in the background and students sitting in comfortable seats. In this way, student became “suggestible”. The other method is the silent way in which it is bellived that it’s in learners...
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